A, intraocular foreign bodies
Any small objects or liquids, even if it is a grain of sand or a drop of detergent into the eyes will cause eye pain, even damage the cornea.
First aid measures: the first is to force and frequent blinking, with tears to the foreign body wash out. If it doesn't work, just pinch your nose and rinse your eyes under the faucet. Attention must be invisible glasses.
The absolute prohibition: do not rub your eyes, no matter how small foreign body will scratch the cornea and cause infection. If the foreign body into the eye deeper position, then be sure to immediately seek medical treatment, doctors to deal with.
Brighten Alert: if it is corrosive liquid splash Ruyan, you must immediately go to the hospital for treatment; if after self treatment eye still unwell, burning, edema or blurred vision, but also need to ask the doctor to use professional instrument to treat and reckless irreverence of Qiebukelu act.
When periarticular ligaments are stretched too serious, beyond its can bear the degree will sprains sprains are usually accompanied by cyanosis and edema.
Emergency measures: in sprains occur within 24 hours, try every hour with ice cold once every half hour. Wrap the injured area with elastic compression bandage, and the injured area is high. 24 hours later, began to change the affected area for heat, promote the blood circulation of the injured area.
Absolute prohibition: can not be random activities of the injured joints, otherwise easy to cause ligament tear, recovery is relatively difficult.
Brighten Alert: if after a few days of self treatment and rest, the lesion is still pain and mobility, it is possible that the fractures, muscle strain or ligament rupture and need to immediately to the hospital for medical treatment.
Nose bleeding is caused due to the rupture of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and nasal blood vessels are very fragile, so flow nosebleed is a relatively common accidents.
Emergency measures: body slightly forward, cartilages and pinch with your fingers under the nose, lasts about 5-15 minutes.
If possible, put a small bag on the nose with rapid hemostasis effect.
The absolute prohibition of: forced to head back upturned position will enable nosebleed import and panic will also have part of the blood is sucked into the lungs, do not not safety or health.
Alarm: if 20 minutes of continuous flow nosebleed still can not stop, patients should immediately go to the hospital to help the doctor. If the number of nosebleed flow too frequent and no reason or accompanied by headache, tinnitus, decreased visual acuity and dizziness and other symptoms, so be sure to hospital for treatment, because it may have suffered a brain concussion or badly injured.
Burns is divided into three stages: first grade burns can cause redness of the skin tingling sensation; two degree of burn after the occurrence of obvious blisters will be seen; three burns will lead to skin ulceration and become black.
Emergency measures: in the event of scald immediately will be hot parts of the placed in the flow of water flushing or with cold towel cold compress, if burn area larger, the victim should the whole body soaked in a bathtub full of cold water. The gauze or bandage can be loosely wound around the wound to protect the wound.
Absolute prohibition: can not be used in the way of ice treatment burns, the ice will damage the damaged skin caused by the deterioration of the wound. Don't blisters, otherwise it will leave a scar. Also do not apply to the antibiotic ointment or grease on the wound, the sticky substance is easily contaminated with dirt.
Bright Alert: three burns, electric shock burns and chemical burns to be sure to go to hospital for medical treatment. In addition, if the patient has a cough, eye tears, or breathing difficulties, you need the help of professional doctors. Two burns if the area is larger than the palm of the hand, then the patient should go to the hospital to see, professional treatment can avoid scarring.
True asphyxia rarely occur in real life, drinking water choking or being choked with food generally are not suffocated. Asphyxia occurs when the patient does not have a strong cough, can not speak or breathe, the face will be a short period of time to become red or blue purple.
First aid approach: first, we need to quickly call an ambulance. While waiting for the ambulance and need to take the following measures: let the patient leaned forward, with the palm of your hand force to take a picture of the location in the middle of the patients with back and shoulders. If you do not work, then you need to stand behind the patient, with his fist against the patient's abdomen and back, with another hand to hold the fist, force of promoting launched five times to help patients with respiratory. Patients can also take such self-help measures: the abdomen arrived on a hard object, such as the kitchen table, and then squeeze the abdomen, so that the card in the throat of the thing to play out.
Absolutely forbidden: do not feed water or other food to the patients who are coughing.
Light alarm: as long as the choking occurs, it is required to quickly call an ambulance to rescue patients.
The poisoning occurred in the family is generally due to the ingestion of cleaning, washing supplies, carbon monoxide inhalation or ingestion of pesticide.
Emergency measures: if patients have been confusion or difficulty breathing should be quickly call for an ambulance, and is ready to answer the following questions: inhaled or ingested matter what quantity, the patient's weight, age and the time of poisoning.
The absolute prohibition: until the symptoms are often called the ambulance delayed treatment time. In the process of waiting for the rescue, do not give the patient to eat and drink anything, and do not attempt to help patients with vomiting, because some of the toxic substances in the process of being spit out may hurt the other organs of the patient.
Light alarm: as long as the poisoning occurs, it is required to quickly call the ambulance rescue patients. Seven, the head attack"
The skull itself is very hard, so the general external forces rarely cause the damage to the skull. If the external force is too violent, the neck, back, head of the fragile blood vessels on the victim".
Emergency measures: if your head had a package, then a bag of ice affected area can reduce edema. If after being injured head started to bleed, disposal methods and cut way, that with a clean towel pressing hemostasis, then go to the hospital to sew up the wound and check if there is internal damage. If the person was injured faint, you need to call an ambulance car sent to the hospital, can not delay a moment.
Absolutely forbidden: do not let the injured one person to sleep. Must be someone to accompany the injured within 24 hours to be injured, if injured fall asleep, then every three hours to wake up the injured a and allow some of the wounded to answer a few simple questions, to ensure that the injured not unconscious, no cranial injury, such as concussion.
Bright alarm: when the victim appears convulsions, dizziness, vomiting, nausea or behavior has obvious abnormalities, the need to immediately hospitalized for medical treatment.
1, if wounded eyes, not to rub and disorderly flushing, up to drop into the amount of anti-inflammatory eye drops, and lying down, call 120 or rushed to the hospital.
2, such as hand or foot was firecrackers wounded bleeding should be quickly with his hands to the stuck the bleeding site above, such as Yunnan Baiyao Powder or Sanqi powder can be sprinkled on hemostasis. If the bleeding is more than and large amount, the application of rubber belt or cloth tied above the site of bleeding, raising the affected limb, rushed to the hospital debridement. But the binding band every 15 minutes to loose once, so as not to suffer from ischemic necrosis.
Nine, finger cut
1, if less bleeding and injury is not serious, but after the cleaning, to cover the wound bandage. Do not advocate in the wound to apply red medicine or hemostatic powder, such as drugs, as long as the wound can be kept clean.
2, if the wound is large and bleeding more than, should be stopped bleeding, and then immediately rushed to the hospital. The specific hemostasis method is: the wound with a clean gauze bandage, pinch the fingers of both sides of the root of the root and raised the heart, because the blood vessels here are distributed on the left and right sides, the use of this gesture can effectively stop bleeding. Use rubber tourniquet effect will be much better, but it should be noted that every 20-30 minutes must tourniquet to relax for a few minutes, otherwise easily lead to ischemic necrosis of the fingers.
In ten, cerebral hemorrhage
Head to the side to aid formula:
Typical symptom: a history of hypertension, due to the sudden drop in temperature or emotional, sudden inarticulate and even coma.
1, the family members should refrain from feeling, not in order to wake up the patient and loudly shout or violent shaking the coma, otherwise only make the condition quickly deteriorated.
2, the patients supine in bed, due to intracranial pressure increased, these patients easily occurred spray vomiting, if not promptly cleared puke, may lead to cerebral hemorrhage coma who due to vomit blocked airway suffocation. So the patient's head must turn to one side, so that the vomit can flow out of the mouth.
3, the families of available ice packs or cold towel on the forehead of patients with bleeding and reduce intracranial pressure.
Eleven, alcohol poisoning
1, for the coma, to ensure airway patency.
2, if the patient vomiting, the stability of lateral position immediately, so that the logistics of vomiting.
3, keep the patient warm, especially in the case of wet and cold.
4, check the breathing, pulse and the degree of reaction, if necessary, immediately use the cpr.
5, the patients were placed in the stability of lateral, closely monitor the condition, every 10 minutes to check and record the respiration, pulse and the degree of the reaction.
Twelve, hemorrhagic shock
First aid formula: close observation, to prevent blood loss.
Typical symptoms: a large number of blood loss due to an accident, blood pressure is zero.
1, for shock patients must pay attention to, when carrying the stretcher to the treatment, the patient's head should be close to the back stretcher, so as to facilitate the shock at any time to close observation, in order to cope with the deterioration of the condition.
2, in the patient to the hospital on the way, the patient's head towards the direction of his transport (ambulance, aircraft, etc.) in the direction of the contrary, so as not to accelerate the role of the patient's brain to further blood loss.
3, such as shock is high in pregnant women, should let her in the lateral decubitus position, otherwise fetal and huge uterus will vascular compression, resulting in diminished venous return and aggravate the shock.
10, with cold water for 1 minutes.
2, covered with a clean, wet dressing.
3, the wound swelling, remove watches, bracelets, rings, the dressing lightly fixed dressing, not too tight.
In 4, the wound on the side lines to bandage.
Fourteen, burn treatment
1, if the burning of the skin is still complete, should be as soon as possible local cooling. If it is placed under the faucet rinse for about 10 minutes. This will take away the heat and reduce the local tissue damage.
2, with a piece of soft and wet, it is best to disinfect pad dressing. Be careful not to be too tight.
3, if the skin has been burned, with a clean mat covered to protect the wound, reduce the risk of infection.
Fifteen, gastric perforation
First aid formula: towards the left side.
Typical symptoms: Patients with gastric ulcer, sudden onset of severe abdominal pain unbearable and abdominal fat hard swollen, that is very possible emergency gastric perforation.
After the Spring Festival due to emotional fluctuations or binge eating, gastric ulcer patients are easy to complicated with gastric perforation, once the occurrence of the above symptoms, should immediately take into account the possibility of gastric perforation. Before the ambulance arrives, the following points should be done:
1, do not cover the belly disorderly roll, should be left lying in bed. The reason is that most of the perforation site is located on the right side of the stomach. Toward the left lie can effectively prevent stomach acid and food further flow into the abdominal cavity so that the disease is aggravated.
2, if the medical staff can not arrive in time, but the scene and some simple medical equipment, the patient can be inserted tube. Methods: the gastric tube into the nostrils to breathe, throat, side edge forced swallowing, the stomach swallowed the stomach. Then with a needle out of the stomach things. Only in this way can reduce abdominal infection, for patients to win treatment time, remember the time patients must towards left lying.
Sixteen, fishbone card throat
1, the implementation of abdominal compression (such as pregnant or obese patients, the implementation of chest compression). If the patient can not stand, flat on the solid surface, bestride in disease suffering from leg abdominal push five times, and then check whether the foreign body coughed up.
3, such as the use of finger to dig a foreign matter, only to see the foreign matter to dig, can not be blindly dig.
Seventeen, gas poisoning
Mild poisoning, the patient feel dizzy, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pale. Severe poisoning, it will be difficult to breathe, convulsions, coma. First aid: immediately open the doors and windows, the patient moved to the air circulation, unlock patient buttoned to breathe smoothly, pay attention to keep warm, prevent cold of catch cold catch pneumonia. Mild poisoning, can give him drink tea, take a deep breath, quickly sent to hospital.
Eighteen, wood thorn
Note there is no thorn wood residues in the wound, because wooden spike residues may make the wound fester, stab wounds are deep and narrow, more conducive to the invasion of tetanus bacteria infection and reproduction. So it is necessary to removal of the foreign body, eliminate hidden dangers.
The fingers were Norte stab into the wood after, if you really have the splinter completely pulled out, and then gently squeezing the wound and the wound blood squeezed out to reduce the chance of infection in the open wound. Then around iodineWineDisinfection wound once, then rubbed alcohol 2 times, bandaged with sterile gauze. If the wound in the left thorn wood, after disinfection wound around available after fire or alcohol inunction sterilizing tweezers managed to wood thorn to pull out. If the splinter exposed part of a short, tweezers to grip, can be sterilized needle always hurt the skin, appropriate to expand the wound, the thorn wood exposed as far as possible, and then use tweezers wood softly spiny outward pull out the wound and to disinfect again with a clean gauze bandage, for the prevention of wound infection, the best service new Connaught Ming 2 tablets, 2 times a day, and even served 3-5 days. The wood nails into thorns, should go to the hospital, physician first nail scissors into a V shape and then pull out the thorn.
Remember! Deep wood thorn stabbed, should go to the hospital for injection of Tetanus Antitoxin (TAT), just in case.
Nineteen, the foreign body in the eyes
Foreign bodies in the dust, soot, grain, metal debris, etc. eyes squint, suddenly eyes wide open, tears, pain, be afraid of light, foreign body sensation, very afflictive, quickly by hand knead crowded to foreign body rub out. In fact, this practice can not be. Because the foreign body in the eyes after kneading and squeezing it may damage the fragile and sensitive cornea, resulting in corneal ulcers, infection, affecting visual acuity. Will also cause eye congestion, conjunctival edema. At the same time, there are many bacteria in hand, Rouyan will put bacteria into the eye, causing inflammation.
Twenty, nail frustrated
1, the nails are squeezed, the most important is to prevent bacterial infection. Emergency treatment, before squeezing out the fingernails of the fingers, using gauze bandage fixed, and then cold cold bag. And then raise the injured limb, immediately go to the hospital.
2, nails bleeding, honey can be half of the temperature of boiling water, stir well, with several times a day, you can gradually heal. If the nail breakage is the ball players, at the end of the treatment period, if need to keep playing, before playing, be sure to finger 2-3 layer is wrapped with adhesive tape, protected, kick the ball immediately after removing, so as not to cause infection.
3, if caused by trauma nail bed bleeding, blood does not flow out, make a bed root uplift, pain can not sleep, burning red sewing needle near the nail root in a small hole, will accumulate blood is drained, disinfection after compression nail bind.
Twenty-one, cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest prompted the heart suddenly stopped beating, the large artery pulsation and heart sound disappeared, vital organs such as severe brain ischemia, hypoxia, leading to the termination of life. This unexpected sudden death, medicine, also known as sudden death.
Ventricular fibrillation is the most common cause of cardiac arrest. If there is no response to the call of the patient, pressure on the orbital and orbital no response, you can determine the patient has been in a coma. To observe the patient's chest and abdomen with no ups and downs breathing movement. If the carotid artery and femoral artery without beating heart, heart can not hear the sound of the heart, can determine the disease has cardiac arrest.
First aid measure
The rescue of cardiac arrest must race against time, don't wait for the arrival of the ambulance sent to hospital for treatment. Make a prompt decision to take the following emergency measures for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
1, tapping the area before the heart: one hand carrying the neck of the patient to support, on the other hand hold the patient's forehead slightly to the rear push, the mandibular upturned, head thrown back, there are favorable for ventilation. With his fist at the bottom of the fleshy part of the sternum, above the middle, away from the chest wall 20 ~ 30 cm, suddenly and quickly a thump. If there is no response, immediately do chest cardiac massage. Let the patient back cushion board at the same time, the mouth to mouth resuscitation. Observe the patient's pupil, if miosis (is the most sensitive and meaningful life signs), turn rosy face, lips that effective rescue.
2, the acupuncture points or palms Laogong, Zuxin Yongquan, to rescue action.
3, quickly took out the throat vomit, so as not to block the airway or back into the lungs, causing suffocation and aspiration pneumonia.
4, the first ice compress.
5, emergency hospital for treatment.
Twenty-two, alcohol poisoning
Alcohol poisoning is the result of excessive intake of ethanol (alcohol) drink caused by the central nervous system excitement after the suppression of the abnormal state. Generally self healing, a very small number of severe cases may be due to respiratory failure and death.
Endangered remain unconscious frequent seizures, shallow breathing, slow heart rate, cardiac weakness, decreased blood pressure. Breathing and heart beating, so that breathing and heartbeat stop.
First aid measure:
For mild poisoning, the first thing is to stop him to continue drinking; secondly can find some pears, water chestnuts, like watermelon fruit to his hangover; can also means to stimulate the throat (such as the use of chopsticks, etc.) caused by vomiting reflex, will wine, such as the stomach contents as soon as possible to vomit (for a now comatose patients are not suitable for use this method), and then arranged for him to stay in bed and rest, pay attention to keep warm, avoid vomit airway obstruction; observe the breathing and pulse, if there is no special, wake up can recover on their own. If the patients lying in bed after the break, and pulse speed up, slow breathing, clammy skin, fretful, immediately sent to hospital for treatment.
Severe acute alcoholism, will appear irritability, lethargy, dehydration, seizures, shock, respiratory weak symptoms should be promptly sent to hospital for emergency treatment. Note: with coffee and tea hangover is not appropriate.